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Atlas of Botany: Glossary of Agricultural Botany

Atlas of Botany: Glossary of Agricultural Botany

Glossary

Achene
Simple indiscreet fruit with the pericarp contiguous to the seed.

Achenocono (birch, alder)
Indiscent compound fruit whose fruit is subtended by scales or bracts spirally arranged along a central axis.

Achenoso (plane tree)
Composed fruit formed by numerous fruit with pericarp closely contiguous to the seed.

Aclamide
Flower without calyx and corolla.

Sharp
Suddenly narrow in shape and ending in acute point.

coniferous
Needle-leaf plants, such as pines and firs.

Ali
Membranous expansions, in the fruits connected with the dissemination by the wind.

ups
Alternately arranged (usually spiral) along the branches.

catkin
Inflorescence similar to an ear, but provided with a soft and pendulous axis.

Androecium
The complex of the stamens of a flower.

Anfisarco
Simple, indiscreet fruit characterized by an externally dry and crusty pericarp, fleshy inside.

angiosperms
"Flowering" plants, that is, those with eggs enclosed within special fertile leaves called carpels.

Anther
The fertile part of the stamen (microsporophyll), in which pollen is formed and matured.

Antesi
Alternative term for flowering.

Arcestida
Compound cone whose scales, fused with bracts and connected with seeds, become fleshy, with the appearance of a berry or drupe; commonly called cuddle.

Aril
Enlargement or expansion, often fleshy, of the external wall of the seed (head), at its base; when the whole external wall becomes fleshy (Ginkgo biloba), it is called sarcotesta.

Arillocarpio
Fruit consisting of a seed partially or completely coated with a fleshy aril.

Axillary
In the armpit of a leaf or branch

autochthonous
Indigenous to the territory.

Berry (strawberry tree, khaki)
Simple fruit with seeds immersed in a fleshy mesocarp, externally coated with an epicarp (peel) less than 2 mm thick.

Bipennato
Twice, i.e. pinnate divided into two orders of branches.

Bisexual
Provided with both stamens and pistils.

Brachiblasto
Short sprig with dense and shortened internodes, which brings to the apex leaves (ginkgo, Lebanese cedar, larch) or inflorescences (cherry).

Bract
Leaf or additional foliar expansion that subtends the flower and sometimes assumes its main function as a reminder to pollinators.

deciduous
Which loses its leaves during the rest season (winter, or dry periods in the tropical area).

Camara (deer tree, carob tree)
Simple fruit that is dehiscent or dehiscent after the fall, consisting of a single carpel with one or more seeds.

Head
Inflorescence with the appearance of a single flower, formed by the apical expansion of a twig on which numerous flowers without peduncles are inserted, usually in a bullet, a very common variant is the calatid (daisy, widow), in which at least the peripheral flowers have flared corollas and elongated towards the outside (radians) which imitate the petals of the simulated single flower.

Capsicono (Gum)
Compound fruit formed by dehiscent fruit, capsule type.

Capsule (willow, poplar, lagestroemia)
Dehiscent fruit formed by several carpels.

Loculicidal capsule (tamarisk, paulownia)
Capsule that opens along the middle ribs of the carpels (dorsally), whose valves are therefore formed by two carpel bunches joined by the margins.

Hull
Protruding longitudinal dorsal line of a convex shaped organ.

cauliflory
Production of flowers directly on the stem.

Cerazio
Capsule that opens for the sliding of different layers of the wall, the innermost of which remain to form a sort of cage or thickened skeleton.

Cocceto (magnolia)
Multiple fruit consisting of independent carpels that open along the two sutures, the dorsal one (middle rib) and the marginal one (margins of the carpel).

Cone
Fruit whose seeds are borne by imbricate scales (like the roof tiles), spiral inserted along an axis, in turn subtended by bracts that can be more or less fused with the former.

coriaceous
Curious consistency.

Cordato
Heart-shaped.

corimbo
Inflorescence consisting of a main axis and ramifications which bring the flowers more or less to the same height.

Cultivar
Variety selected in culture.

Dome
Casing of certain fruits, derived from one or more rounds of bracts partially or completely fused together.

Deciduous
Organ that at the end of its function detaches and falls to the ground.

Decussato (eucalyptus)
It is said of opposite leaves so that each pair is rotated 90 ° with respect to the previous and the next.

deiscente
Which opens spontaneously to release the content.

Diclesio (Caucasus nut, hazel)
Simple fruit, loosely or tightly wrapped by the perianzo of the flower, transformed into a special external coating.

Typed
Organ (leaf, inflorescence etc.) made up of elements arranged like the fingers of a hand.

dioica
Species in which individuals who produce male flowers are distinct from individuals who produce female flowers.

Drupa (apricot, cherry, dogwood, holly)
Simple fleshy fruit with one or more woody kernels (endocarp) containing the seeds.

ecotype
Genetically differentiated entity with specific ecology.

Endemic
Indigenous and exclusive entity of a specific territory.

endocarp
Inner layer of the pericarp, generally meant and containing the seed.

epicarpo
External state of the pericarp ("peel") that surrounds the fruit.

Built-license
Organ dices (leaf, branch etc.) inserted on its axis with an angle between 90 ° and 180 °.

Hermaphrodite
It is said to be a plant (single individual) that prunes elements of both sexes, both on the same flower and on distinct flowers.

exocarp
External coating of the fruit, of bracteal or perienzal origin (calyx-corolla).

hesperidium
Simple indehiscent fruit with seeds attached to the central axis and pericarp externally leathery, fleshy inside.

heterophyllia
Production of different types of leaf on the same plant or on the same branches.

strides
Sickle shaped.

Fogliolina
Last order segment of a compound leaf.

Follicario (oleander)
Fruit consisting of carpels that separate during ripening and open along the ventral suture (margins of the carpel).

Follicle (Cercidiphyllum)
Simple fruit formed by a single carpel, dehiscent when ripe along the ventral suture (margins of the carpel).

Foveolato
Surface said to be marked by dimples.

galbulus (cypress, araucaria)
Cone composed with scales and bracts welded, generally peltate, and with the seeds contained in cavities delimited by the peduncles of the scales.

Gem
Vegetative apex generally covered with protective scales (perulas), or small organ used for vegetative propagation.

Acorn
Simple, indiscreet fruit formed by the derivation of the ovary (pericarp) underneath an envelope (or included in it), generally dome-shaped, derived from bracts, from the receptacle or from the perianzo of the flower.

gynaeceum
The complex of flower pistils.

Hairless
Hairless.

Glauco
Gray-bluish.

glomerulus
Inflorescence similar to a raceme or a panicle with shorter axes of flowers.

Hybrid
Product of the cross between different species.

indehiscent
That does not open.

Inflorescence
System of branches that bear flowers and, often, bracts.

hypanthium
Cavity delimited by a cup or tube-shaped flower receptacle, in which the ovary is located.

Lanceolate
It is said to be a flattened, spear-shaped organ.

Hardwood
Plants with enlarged leaves, never needle-like or scaly.

Legume (judas tree, laburnum, locust)
Simple fruit formed by a single carpel that opens along the two sutures (dorsal and ventral), with the seeds attached to the ventral suture, that is, at the edges of the carpel.

Lenticella
Interruption, usually circular or ovoid, of the external cork layer of a stem or branch, consisting of a cluster of thin-walled parenchymal cells (cellulosic) to allow air circulation

loment (spino di Giuda, acacia of Constantinople, mimosa, sofora of Japan)
Simple fruit formed by a single carpel which, when ripe, fragments into articles containing the seeds.

Macroblasto
Elongated twig with spaced nodes, which differs from the other twigs of the same plant.

mesocarpo
Inner layer of pericarp of generally fleshy consistency.

mesophilic
With a cool, temperate climate.

Monoclamide
It is called a flower with only a calyx.

monoecious
Species with unisexual flowers of both sexes carried by the same plant.

mucronate
Equipped with a small protruding tip.

naturalized
It is said of an exotic plant introduced and escaped from cultivation.

Nectar
Sugar secretion, often also containing amino acids, made available by the flower to reward the pollinating animal for the service rendered.

Nectarius
Internal surface of the flower, usually located at the bottom by the corolla or in its appropriate appendages, or again on a circular expansion called the disk; several plants also have extra-floral nectars (for example, acacias) used for the call of ants that protect the plant from attacks by predators.

Ombrella
Inflorescence formed by flowers whose peduncles start from the same point arranging themselves like the rays of an umbrella.

opposing
Leaves or bracts inserted in pairs on the nodes and arranged in the opposite direction.

Ovary
Enlarged basal part of the pistil containing the eggs.

ovato
Egg-shaped.

ovum
Organ containing the embryonic sac in which the female gamete (egg cell) matures, which after fertilization turns into seed.

Cob
Inflorescence consisting of a main axis with various branching orders.

license
Protruding at right angles.

peduncle
Sprig carrying the flower.

Peltato
It is said of leaves that have the shape of a shield.

pennato
It is said to be an elongated organ with a central rib and lateral nerves.

Perianth
The set of chalice and corolla.

pericarp
The fruit or part of it derived from the transformation of the pistil after pollination, without accessories of floral or extra-floral origin.

Pericarp
The part of the fruit that surrounds the seeds; in the drupe it is differentiated into three layers, the epicarp ("peel") which forms the external coating, the mesocarp which constitutes the fleshy part, and the endocarp which forms the core containing the seed .

Petal
Corolla element.

Picciolato
Equipped with a stalk.

Picciolo
Elongated basal part in the shape of a twig with which the leaf fits on the branch.

Pine nuts
Pine seeds (especially domestic pine).

Pissidio (eucalyptus)
Capsule fruit dehiscent transversely by means of a "cover".

Pistil
Female element of the flower made up of an ovary that can extend into a stylus and ends with a dilated surface, capable of receiving pollen, the stigma.

pneumatophores
Woody root emergencies, usually more or less conical, which remain out of the water even when the roots are submerged and allow them to perform efficient oxygenation.

Policormico
Multiple keg formed by several kegs of equal size.

Pollone
Root bud.

Pomo (lazzeruolo, ciavardello, melo)
Simple indiscent fruit consisting of a fleshy or leathery exocarp, of recectacular or perianial origin, and of a pericarp with crusty or woody endocarp.

pruinose
Covered with a wax layer (pruina).

Pseudodrupa (walnut, olive wood)
Simple indiscreet fruit with hardened pericarp, often woody, wrapped in a fleshy or leathery exocarp.

Pseudosamara (hornbeam, linden)
Simple, indiscreet fruit with exocarp provided with wing expansions, along the pericarp once or twice.

pubescent
Covered with a dense and thin hair.

Racemo
Inflorescence formed by a main axis with first-order ramifications.

rachis
Axis of an inflorescence, usually spike.

misprint
Beveled, engraved at the apex.

Receptacle
Expanded end of the peduncle on which the flower elements are inserted.

Reflection
Folded down.

riparian
Who lives along the banks of rivers.

Rustica
Species capable of enduring a cold season.

Samara
Simple indiscreet fruit with pericarp expanded into one or more wings suitable for flight.

Samareto (tulip tree)
Multiple fruit consisting of small winged fruit comparable to samare.

Samarium (Maple)
Fruit derived from the separation of carpels (schizocarp) each with a wing often much longer than the part containing the seed.

Schizocarpica (origin)
When the carpels, united in the ovary, separate during the formation of the fruit.

Scorza
Commonly called bark, it is the integument (cork) characteristic of stems and woody branches.
With the diametrical growth, the rind cracks, splits and peels in a manner characteristic of each species.

Seed
Envelope that contains the new seedling formed, together with its reserve tissues, following the fertilization of the embryo sac of the egg.

Sepal
Chalice element.

Sessile
Free of petiole (leaf) or peduncle (flower).

syconium (Benjamin)
Composed fruit consisting of fruit included in a receptacle or in a concave peduncle, mostly fleshy.

Soroso
Composed fruit consisting of numerous succulent pericarps that developed on a peduncle.

Spur (Scrophulariaceae)
Elongated appendix of the corolla containing the nectar.

Ear
Inflorescence consisting of a more or less rigid axis on which flowers without peduncles are inserted.

Stamen
Male element of the flower consisting of a filament and an apical anther, the latter of the pollen.

Staminodio
Sterile stamen, often flattened and colored, intermediate in appearance with the corolla elements.

Stylus
Apical extension of the ovary.

Summa
Apex of the ovary, characterized by a finely papillose surface, suitable for receiving pollen grains.

Jamb
Bearing axis.

stipules
Sort of accessory leaflet inserted on each side at the base of the leaf. It is present only in certain plants.

Taxon
Systematic category marked by a Latin name (Fagaceae, Catalpa, Robinia pseudoacacia).

thermophilic
Who loves the heat.

tomentose
Covered with a thick cottony hair.

Trima (hickory)
Simple fruit consisting of a dehiscent exocarp, which frees the pericarp.

Trimocono (Casuarina)
Composed fruit consisting of trima type fruit, inserted in a cone structure.

Trimoso (chestnut, beech)
Composed fruit formed by pericarps enveloped in a common bracts envelope which when ripe opens into valves.

Unisexual
Flower with only stamens or only pistils.

Urceolato (Strawberry tree)
It is said of a flower whose perianzo (especially the corolla) has the shape of a small barrel.

whorl
Round of leaves or branches or bracts or flowers inserted in 3 or more around a knot.

banner
The upper petal of the papilioned corolla (Fabaceae), usually larger and more conspicuous than the others.

vicariance
Substitution between related species in different geographical areas or in different habitats.


Video: Summer Research Institute 2019: Botany at the New York Botanical Gardens (September 2021).