The grape harvesters can be carried, towed or self-propelled with their own engine, a model which, compared to the others, offers a higher progression in advance. This type of machinery operates in the screws by inter-gaping, or they pass over them by climbing over them. They require two operators who take care of the detachment of the bunches or only of the berries. The cut is made by suction or compression, by shaking and by percussion. Vertical shaking models are generally less used. They make it possible to organize the shoots with a star-shaped instrument that strikes the cord from the bottom upwards, i.e. vertically, causing the berries to fall from the stalks. The machines with horizontal shaking, on the other hand, are starting to have a wider use.
Horizontal shaking grape harvester
The grape harvesters with horizontal shaking are used above all on Guyot-type training systems, that is with vertical walls. These are towed or self-propelled machines able to manage and self-level the operations of the processing systems. They consist of four fundamental elements: collection group, interception group, transport device, cleaning system. The horizontal shaking machines straddle the row with two nylon shakers on the two sides of the machine, whose synchronized oscillation is transmitted to the row and therefore to the grapes. The shaking part is articulated by a complex of semi-curved vibrating rods, in cylindrical glass fiber, moved by a hydraulic motor that allows a cyclic mechanism.
Vertical shaking grape harvester
The vertical shaking grape harvesters adapt to espalier farming as double curtain, free cord, mobilized free cord and combi. According to the positioning of the cords, these machines are straddle or single-row type. The straddle machines have the beads both facing in the same direction, while the single-row machines have the beads on the direction of advancement of the harvester, so that the machine operates on both sides of the advancement. This grape harvester can act only on one side of the espalier or on both sides depending on whether it is towed or self-propelled.In the vineyards with awning or pergola the machines can act by combing, where the system consists of oscillating combs whose teeth detach the grapes that fall into a container.
Grape harvesters: Comparison between trailed and self-propelled grape harvesters
The advantages of a trailed grape harvester are concentrated in a greater ability to overcome slopes. They also have a low weight and lower purchase and operating costs. Moreover, the category of machinery shows a lower productivity given by forward speeds that do not exceed 2 Km / h. On average hills at a speed of 1.6 Km / h it collects about 2 hectares in 8 hours of work. ease of assembly of work equipment. This category of machinery in the plains collects 8 hectares a day, a productivity therefore higher than those towed. On the other hand, self-propelled vehicles show higher purchase and management costs, and a high weight.