Typical Italian cheeses: Puzzone di Moena Dop

Typical Italian cheeses: Puzzone di Moena Dop

Origins and production area

PDO recognition: 2014

It is produced exclusively in the Moena area in the province of Trento, starting from whole cow's milk. Spretz Tzaorì (as it is called in Ladin) owes its name to the particular rather strong and intense smell and has a sweet taste with a bitter aftertaste.

Puzzone di Moena - Spretz Tzaorì (photo

Characteristics and production phases

It is a semi-cooked whole-milk cheese, which is salted in brine and lasts for two days. Starting from the age of 15-20 days, the forms are wetted weekly with warm water. In this way an airtight patina is formed that wraps the shapes and promotes fermentation in the dough. Seasoning takes place in cool rooms with a high degree of humidity, where the cheese, placed on wooden shelves, is turned over twice a week. The average maturing period is two months minimum, eight months maximum. The shape is cylindrical with flat faces with a diameter of 32-36 cm, the heel is straight or slightly rounded by 9-11 cm. The rind is smooth ocher yellow and oily, more or less consistent, depending on the seasoning. It has a medium small and sparse eye, mostly ovoid in shape.

Gastronomy and recommended wines

Excellent table cheese, it goes well with polenta. Suggested wine for marzemino dIsera.

Production Disciplinary Proposal "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì"

Article 1
Product name
1. The protected designation of origin "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì" is reserved for cheese which meets the conditions and requirements defined in this production specification.

Article 2
Product description
1. The "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì" PDO is a table cheese, with whole or partially skim milk, with natural or induced fermentation, with the addition of natural graft milk.
2. Raw material used:
- raw cow's milk.
3. Product features:
a) Physical characteristics:
- shape: cylindrical, low-rise, slightly convex or flat, with flat or slightly convex faces;
- dimensions and weight of the shape: diameter from 34 to 42 cm, heel height from 9 to 12 cm; weight from 9 to 13 kg;
- rind: smooth or slightly wrinkled, oily, ocher yellow, light brown or reddish, more or less dry;
- pasta: half-cooked, semi-hard, soft, elastic, white-light yellow color, with medium-small holes, sparse. The cheese obtained from malga milk has a paste with medium-large holes and a more pronounced yellow color.
b) Chemical characteristics:
- fat on dry matter: over 45%;
- humidity: from a minimum of 34% to a maximum of 44%, verified after a minimum of 90 days of seasoning.
c) Organoleptic characteristics:
- flavor: robust, intense, slightly and pleasantly salty and / or spicy, with a barely noticeable bitter aftertaste;
- smell and aroma: intense, penetrating, with a slight hint of ammonia.
4. Production period:
- all the year.
5. Seasoning:
- minimum 90 days. After 150 days it can be defined as seasoned ".

Article 3
Production area
1. The production area of ​​the "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì" PDO, the area of ​​origin of the milk, of the transformation of the milk and of the treatment of the cheese, up to the completion of the minimum maturation of 90 days, coincides with the whole territory of the following Municipalities: Campitello di Fassa, Canal San Bovo, Canazei, Capriana, Carano, Castello Molina di Fiemme, Cavalese, Daiano, Fiera di Primiero, Imer, Mazzin, Mezzano, Moena, Moena, Panchià, Pozza di Fassa, Predazzo, Sagron Mis, Siror, Soraga, Tesero, Tonadico, Transacqua, Valfloriana, Varena, Vigo di Fassa, Ziano di Fiemme, in the Province of Trento; Anterivo and Trodena in the Province of Bolzano.
2. The above specified delimitation of the production area of ​​the PDO "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì" is the result of a correct interpretation of the economic - historical - cultural data which demonstrate how in the valleys of Fassa, Primiero, Fiemme, and in the municipalities of Anterivo and Trodena, the latter in the province of Bolzano, a cheese was produced and is still produced with the peculiar and unmistakable characteristics of the "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì".

Article 4
Elements that prove the origin
1. Each phase of the production process is monitored by documenting the inputs and outputs for each. In this way and through the registration, in specific lists managed by the control body, of breeders, producers and packagers, as well as through timely reporting to the control structure of the quantities produced, the traceability and traceability of the product is guaranteed. . All natural or legal persons registered in the relevant lists are subject to control by the certification body, in accordance with the provisions of the production specification and the related control plan.

Article 5
Obtaining method
1. Origin of the milk:
- The milk must come from Bruna, Friesian, Pezzata rossa, Grigio Alpina, Rendena, Pinzgau and their cross breeds.
- In the process of obtaining the “Puzzone di Moena” / “Spretz Tzaorì” PDO cheese, the milk of one or more of the aforementioned breeds can be used.
- The use of milk obtained from cows fed with silage of any type and / or "mixers" and / or using the "Single or Unifeed dish" technique is excluded.
- Alpine milk can be used for the production of "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì".
- In the feeding of lactating cows, for the production of milk suitable for the PDO "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì", at least 60% of the forage (stable meadow hay and / or grass cut or consumed directly from pasture) must come from the production area identified in article 3.
- The food ration of the cows can be integrated with simple or compound feed to an extent that guarantees balanced feeding of the cows according to their milk production.
- In the composition of the feed the following products must not be present, in addition to those not permitted by current legislation:
- rapeseed flour, grape seeds, citrus seeds;
- dried by-products from the industrial processing of vegetables and fruit;
- by-products from the sugar industry;
- dried by-products from the fermentation industry;
- dried vegetables and fruit.
2. Collection and delivery of milk to the dairy:
- The collection and delivery of milk to the dairy can be done with bins, with insulated tanker, in this case the milk is cooled or cooled at the barn, once or twice a day.
- The transformation of the milk must be carried out within 36 hours following the delivery of the milk to the factory and in any case no later than 60 hours from the first or any second milk.
3. Processing of milk:
- can only take place in dairy structures located within the production area referred to in article 3 above;
- the milk used is exclusively cow's milk, from two successive milkings, coming from farms located within the production area referred to in article 3 above;
- hot or cooled milk at 15-20 ° C or cooled at a temperature of 8-16 ° C in the case of only one collection per day, is stored and, at times, partially skimmed by natural surfacing in a bowl or other containers in stainless steel;
- raw milk must be used; the thermization is allowed only for the milk used for the preparation of the natural milk-graft produced in the dairy concerned or at the other dairies in the area referred to in the previous article 3. The natural milk graft derives from a microbial selection by thermalization of a certain quantity milk from controlled stables and subsequent incubation for a defined time;
- the milk is heated with a wood fire or with steam, in boilers or multipurpose, in stainless steel or copper;
- the use of any additive is not allowed;
- acidity can be natural or induced with natural milk-graft;
- bovine rennet must be used;
- coagulation is obtained at a temperature of 34 ± 2 ° C;
- the coagulation and firming time varies from a minimum of 25 to a maximum of 40 minutes;
- the cut of the curd reaches the size of a hazelnut;
- the half-cooking is done at a temperature of 46 ° C 2 ° C;
- the duration of the half-cooking ranges from a minimum of 15 to a maximum of 30 minutes; during this phase the mass is stirred continuously;
- the duration of the curd stop under whey ranges from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 20 minutes;
- after the break, the curd is extracted. This is placed on the spreader, in wooden or other suitable material bundles, inside linen or cotton cloths or of another suitable type, or in micro-perforated molds. The forms thus obtained are subsequently arranged in the marking molds;
- in the case of the use of a multipurpose boiler, once the half-cooking is finished, the whey with the curd is conveyed to the drainage tank. The whey is then removed and the curd is pressed. Once this phase is completed, the curd is portioned and then extracted and placed on the spreader in plastic or other suitable material molds. The curd with whey can also be conveyed directly into the special molds.
- in both cases the forms, inside the molds or in the molds, are put under the press or presses and turned over several times. Micro-perforated molds can also be used. The forms then stop on the spreader and after a few hours they are placed in the marking molds until the next day when they pass to salting.
4. Salting and seasoning:
- salting can be done dry or in brine;
- the duration of dry salting ranges from a minimum of 8 to a maximum of 10 days;
- the duration of the brine salting varies from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 4 days;
- the brine can have a variable density from a minimum of 15 to a maximum of 20 ° Baumé;
- during the first two to three weeks, as per established tradition, the forms are turned over and bathed twice a week with lukewarm water, which can be slightly salted. Brine diluted with water can also be used. Subsequently the treatment is done once a week, always after turning the forms, until maturation. This practice leads to the formation on the crust of an oily patina and the appearance, little by little, of the color ocher yellow or light brown or reddish.
- the cheese is aged in special rooms at a temperature ranging from a minimum of 10 ° C to a maximum of 20 ° C and humidity higher than 85%.

Article 6
Elements that prove the link with the environment
1. The particular olfactory taste sensations of the PDO "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì" cheese are determinedly linked to the use of raw milk, the ban on the use of silage and additives and decisively influenced by the feeding of the cows with hay and / or mowed grass in the area or consumed directly on the pastures in the area, rich in particular fodder essences, by the microbiological richness of milk and habitat, as well as by the particular technique of governing and aging the cheese, consolidated over time , with particular reference to the practice of washing the shapes which has always been performed with care in the production area.
The cheese obtained from the transformation of malga milk is tastier due to the abundance of enzymes and the greater concentration of aromas in the botanical essences that the cattle feed on in the malghe located in the territory referred to in the previous article 3, however revealing the spiciness sooner because of the higher lipid content.
2. There are testimonies and elements capable of demonstrating that a "Nostrano Fassano" cheese, characterized above all by its greasy crust and its pasta with an accentuated smell and taste, was still produced many years ago on mountain huts, in turnaria dairies, in mountain farms, especially in Val di Fassa, but also in certain areas of the neighboring Val di Fiemme and the Primiero basin, with the denominations of "nostrano della Val di Fiemme" or "nostrano di Primiero. In this regard, mention is made of documents such as:
a) the opinion of the Head of the Agricultural Inspectorate of Trento of 14 June 1963 in which explicit reference is made to a "local Fassano" cheese;
b) the testimony of the journalist dr. Sergio Ferrari of Trento who certifies that the name "Puzzone di Moena" was used for the first time in the summer of 1974 during a Sunday radio broadcast of the RAI headquarters in Trento, with reference to the washed rind cheese "nostrano fassano" from Social Dairy of Moena, becoming more and more widespread over time;
c) the assessment report and opinion of the Department of Agriculture and Agritourism of the Autonomous Province of Trento on the application for contribution from the Social Dairy of Moena in 1983, which states that: "The milk delivered in 1982 was equal to 4,600 quintals and has been transformed into butter and cheese, in particular the local type called "Puzzone di Moena".
3. Apart from the crust washing technique, which makes it particular, and the feeding of the cows, the link between this dairy product and the environment of the defined area is also made up of the climatic-environmental, geopedological, territorial and floricultural characteristics of the area. production conditions, all conditions that directly or indirectly influence the formation of the aromas, flavors, flavors and nutritional properties of the "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì". Rainfall, the strong climatic difference of the various seasons, the altitude of the meadows and pastures, which goes from 600 meters above sea level. to over 2000 m. s.l.m. of some alpine huts, the particular flora of the meadows and pastures are specific conditions that cannot be imitated or transferred, which indissolubly link this product to the defined area.
In fact, several studies have confirmed that the spread of summer pasture and the good quality and floral diversity of the valley floor meadows have a positive effect on the aromatic characteristics of the dairy products of the delimited area and in particular of the "Puzzone di Moena" / " Spretz Tzaorì ". Among the species most present and highly appetized by the animals we mention: Arrhenatherum elatius (Avena maggiore), Lotus corniculatus (Ginestrino), Plantago lanceolata (Plantain spear), Trifolium pratense (Common clover), Phleum pratense (Common tail), Trisetum flavescens ( Blond wheatgrass) between the valley floor species and Cynosurus cristatus (Crested dog's tail), Crepis aurea (Radicchiela aranciata), Leontodon autumnalis (Branchy dandelion), Lotus alpinus (Alpine broom), Phleum alpinum (Codolina alpina), Poa alpina (Fienarola delle Alpi), Trifolium badium (Brown clover), Trifolium alpinum (Alpine clover) among the species present on the pastures as well as particular endemic species.
4. The production of the "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì", a term with which it has emerged in recent decades, represents the valleys of Fassa and Fiemme and of the Primiero territory, as well as for the municipalities of Anterivo and Trodena , of the neighboring province of Bolzano, the testimony of an ancient agriculture, rooted in the fabric of the local mountain rurality. The mountain pasture, with the folkloric festivals of the dismantling, the grazing of the cattle in the mountain farms, the associative forms of milk processing, first shiftwork, then cooperatives, the mowing of the meadows in the mountains, are all agricultural activities that have always taken place in the aforementioned valleys.
Confirming the historical connection of the "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì" cheese with the demarcated area, we can see the fact that there is no evidence that its production, in past decades, has spilled over into the neighboring Alpine valleys of the Trentino, South Tyrol and Veneto. This shows that in this area there have been and are the overall favorable conditions for this particular dairy production, of the washed rind type, not widespread in Italy.
5. The "Puzzone di Moena" / "Spretz Tzaorì", according to the Ladin language of the Val di Fassa, for its accentuated flavor and smell, up to the spicy, often salty, was particularly appreciated by the poor people of the mountain countryside because, also in small quantities, it flavored the modest dishes of the farmers often based on polenta or potatoes.

Puzzone di Moena - Spretz Tzaorì (photo

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